Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 16 (4), 565-573

Do Red and Blue Uniforms Matter in Football and Handball Penalties?


Do Red and Blue Uniforms Matter in Football and Handball Penalties?

Bjoern Krenn et al. J Sports Sci Med.


Past research has revealed ambiguous results on the impact of red uniforms in sports competition. The current study was aimed at analyzing the role of red and blue uniforms in football and handball penalties. Two experiments were conducted using a within subjects design, where participants rated uniform color-manipulated video clips. In the first study, participants (n = 39) watched footage of football players kicking a penalty, whereas in the second study (n = 118) videos of handball penalty takers, handball goalkeepers and football goalkeepers preparing themselves to score/save a penalty were shown. Participants rated player's/goalkeeper's level of confidence and the expected position of the ball crossing the goal line in the first experiment and additionally the probability of scoring the penalty against the goalkeepers in the second experiment. The videos stopped at the point where the ball was leaving the foot and hand respectively. Results did not show any beneficial impact of red uniforms. Rather, football players wearing blue were rated to kick the ball higher. The study contradicts any positive effect of red versus blue uniforms in the context of football and handball penalties, which emphasizes the need of searching for potential moderators of color's impact on human behavior.

Keywords: Color; cognition; decision; hue; performance.


Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Four single frames for each experimental category of both studies: Football (left) and handball penalties (right) from goalkeeper’s (top) or penalty taker’s (bottom) perspective.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 article

LinkOut - more resources