Predictors of coverage of the national maternal pertussis and infant rotavirus vaccination programmes in England

Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jan;146(2):197-206. doi: 10.1017/S0950268817002497. Epub 2017 Dec 14.


This study assessed variation in coverage of maternal pertussis vaccination, introduced in England in October 2012 in response to a national outbreak, and a new infant rotavirus vaccination programme, implemented in July 2013. Vaccine eligible patients were included from national vaccine coverage datasets and covered April 2014 to March 2015 for pertussis and January 2014 to June 2016 for rotavirus. Vaccine coverage (%) was calculated overall and by NHS England Local Team (LT), ethnicity and Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) quintile, and compared using binomial regression. Compared with white-British infants, the largest differences in rotavirus coverage were in 'other', white-Irish and black-Caribbean infants (-13·9%, -12·1% and -10·7%, respectively), after adjusting for IMD and LT. The largest differences in maternal pertussis coverage were in black-other and black-Caribbean women (-16·3% and -15·4%, respectively). Coverage was lowest in London LT for both programmes. Coverage decreased with increasing deprivation and was 14·0% lower in the most deprived quintile compared with the least deprived for the pertussis programme and 4·4% lower for rotavirus. Patients' ethnicity and deprivation were therefore predictors of coverage which contributed to, but did not wholly account for, geographical variation in coverage in England.

Keywords: Ethnicity; inequalities; vaccination.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asian People / statistics & numerical data
  • Black People / statistics & numerical data
  • Caribbean Region
  • England
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs
  • Infant
  • London
  • Male
  • Mothers / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pertussis Vaccine / therapeutic use*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Second
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Regression Analysis
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Social Class*
  • State Medicine
  • Vaccination Coverage / statistics & numerical data*
  • White People / statistics & numerical data
  • Whooping Cough / prevention & control*


  • Pertussis Vaccine
  • Rotavirus Vaccines