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. 2017 Dec 14;12(12):e0189719.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189719. eCollection 2017.

Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) Among German students-A Longitudinal Approach

Free PMC article

Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) Among German students-A Longitudinal Approach

Julia Brailovskaia et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article


The present study aimed to investigate Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) in a German student sample over a period of one year. While mean FAD level did not increase during the investigation period, a significant increase was shown in the number of participants reaching the critical cutoff score. FAD was significantly positively related to the personality trait narcissism and to negative mental health variables (depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms). Furthermore, FAD fully mediated the significant positive relationship between narcissism and stress symptoms, which demonstrates that narcissistic people can be specifically at risk to develop FAD. Present results give a first overview of FAD in Germany. Practical applications for future studies and limitations of present results are discussed.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Fig 1
Fig 1. Mediation model with narcissism as predictor (X), FAD as mediator (M), and stress symptoms as outcome (Y) (Hypothesis 5).
c = total effect, c’ = direct effect.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Mediation model including results.
c = total effect, c’ = direct effect; b = standardized regression coefficient, SE = standard error, CI = confidence interval.

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Grant support

This study was supported by Alexander von Humboldt Professorship awarded to Jürgen Margraf by the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation. Furthermore, we acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Funds of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.