Surgical Versus Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndromes

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Dec 19;70(24):2995-3006. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.029.


Background: Randomized trial data support the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery over percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in diabetic patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MV-CAD). However, whether this benefit is seen in a real-world population among subjects with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is unknown.

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the generalizability of the FREEDOM (Future REvascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multi-vessel Disease) trial in real-world practice among patients with diabetes mellitus and MV-CAD in residents of British Columbia, Canada. Additionally, the study evaluated the impact of mode of revascularization (CABG vs. PCI with drug-eluting stents) in diabetic patients with ACS and MV-CAD.

Methods: In a large population-based database from British Columbia, this study evaluated major cardiovascular outcomes in all diabetic patients who underwent coronary revascularization between 2007 and 2014 (n = 4,661, 2,947 patients with ACS). The primary endpoint (major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events [MACCE]) was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. The risk of MACCE with CABG or PCI was compared using multivariable adjustment and a propensity score model.

Results: At 30-days post-revascularization, for ACS patients the odds ratio for MACCE favored CABG 0.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34 to 0.71), whereas among SIHD patients MACCE was not affected by revascularization strategy (odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.71 to 3.01; pinteraction <0.01). With a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the late (31-day to 5-year) benefit of CABG over PCI no longer varied by acuity of presentation, with a hazard ratio for MACCE in ACS patients of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.81) and the hazard ratio for SIHD patients of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.74; pinteraction = 0.28).

Conclusions: In diabetic patients with MV-CAD, CABG was associated with a lower rate of long-term MACCE relative to PCI for both ACS and SIHD. A well-powered randomized trial of CABG versus PCI in the ACS population is warranted because these patients have been largely excluded from prior trials.

Keywords: diabetes; multivessel coronary artery disease; revascularization; survival.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / complications
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / surgery*
  • Aged
  • British Columbia / epidemiology
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / methods*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / methods*
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate / trends