Objectives: To evaluate associations between the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) and other outcomes, including joint erosions and both clinical and economic endpoints, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods: Data from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS), a prospective registry of adult RA patients with established or recent-onset RA, were analyzed. Logistic regression models were constructed to test associations between anti-CCP/RF seropositivity and erosive disease and the presence of anti-CCP/RF seropositivity plus erosive disease and (1) RA severity; (2) hospitalizations; (3) durable medical equipment (DME) use; and (4) worker productivity (e.g., employment status). Covariates in these models included patient age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), number of comorbidities, and treatment.
Results: Among 1309 registrants, those who were positive (vs. negative) for anti-CCP were 2.72 times more likely to have erosions (OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.77-4.18; P < 0.001). Individuals positive (vs. negative) for RF were 36% more likely to have erosions (95% CI: 0.88-2.08; P = 0.162). Patients with anti-CCP seropositivity and erosions were significantly more likely to: (1) have higher disease activity as measured by the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP ≥ 2.6); (2) be hospitalized; (3) use DME; and (4) be unemployed, disabled, or long-term disabled.
Conclusions: For the first time in a "real-world" setting including patients with both recent-onset and chronic RA, this study demonstrated that the combination of anti-CCP seropositivity and erosions were significantly associated with more adverse clinical and health-economic consequences, including a lower probability of low disease activity and higher health resource utilization, despite use of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs by many patients. This dual presentation may signal a need for more intensive therapies, even when observed in patients with chronic, as well as recent-onset, RA. Trial registration [Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study; Registry URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01793103; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01793103].
Keywords: Anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies; Epidemiology; Erosions; Patient registry; Rheumatoid arthritis.
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