Despite the excellent efficacy of direct acting antivirals (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment failures do occur. Until recently, retreatment decisions after DAA failure were influenced by the number of available agents, concerns about HCV drug resistance, and lack of data regarding retreatment. Recommended treatment approaches previously depended on limited clinical trials and expert opinion. In this article, we review the current state of the evidence for HCV retreatment after DAA failure. Based on recent clinical trial data, most patients who fail HCV treatment with DAA agents now have excellent retreatment options. While some patients may benefit from resistance testing after DAA therapy failure to select the optimal treatment and duration, newly approved salvage therapies are not significantly impacted by common mutations and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for HCV retreatment without regard for the presence of resistance associated substitutions. While prior retreatment efforts were limited to longer courses of therapy, the addition of ribavirin, or novel combinations of approved therapies based on expert guidance, current DAA options make HCV retreatment in the DAA era more streamlined and evidence-based.
Keywords: Direct acting antiviral (DAA); Hepatitis C virus (HCV); Relapse; Retreatment; Treatment.