Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent disorder, associated with low blood vitamin D level.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and GDM.
Search strategy: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and China Biology Medicine disc were searched up to May 2017. The references of previous studies were screened.
Selection criteria: Observational studies on the relationship between vitamin D and GDM free from Hawthorne effect and randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy for preventing or treating GDM were included.
Data collection and analysis: Data and information of included articles were extracted by duplicate using piloted tables. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Cochrane Handbook were used for quality assessment. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analysis and analysis of publication bias were conducted.
Main results: Eighty-seven observational studies and 25 randomised controlled trials involving 55 859 and 2445 women, respectively, were included. Low blood vitamin D level during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM (OR 1.850, 95% CI 1.471-2.328). Blood vitamin D level for women with GDM were lower than in the control women. Blood vitamin D level was associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (r = -0.100 and r = -0.351), whereas the correlation between blood vitamin D level and fasting insulin (FINS) might be concealed by publication bias. Vitamin D intervention during pregnancy could change the blood levels of vitamin D, FINS, FPG, HOMA-IR, glutathione, C-reactive protein and lipid.
Conclusions: Low blood vitamin D level could increase the risk of GDM, and vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy could ameliorate the condition of GDM.
Tweetable abstract: Low blood vitamin D increases gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. Vitamin D supplementation ameliorates GDM condition.
Keywords: blood glucose; gestational diabetes mellitus; insulin; meta-analysis; vitamin D.
© 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.