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Randomized Controlled Trial
, 9 (12)

Hematological and Hemodynamic Responses to Acute and Short-Term Creatine Nitrate Supplementation

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Randomized Controlled Trial

Hematological and Hemodynamic Responses to Acute and Short-Term Creatine Nitrate Supplementation

Ryan L Dalton et al. Nutrients.

Abstract

In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples, and bench press, leg press, and cycling time trial performance and recovery were assessed. Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM). No significant differences were found among treatments for hemodynamic responses, clinical blood markers or self-reported side effects. After 5 days of supplementation, one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press improved significantly for CNH (mean change, 95% CI; 6.1 [3.5, 8.7] kg) but not PLA (0.7 [-1.6, 3.0] kg or CNL (2.0 [-0.9, 4.9] kg, CNH, p = 0.01). CNH participants also tended to experience an attenuated loss in 1RM strength during the recovery performance tests following supplementation on day 5 (PLA: -9.3 [-13.5, -5.0], CNL: -9.3 [-13.5, -5.1], CNH: -3.9 [-6.6, -1.2] kg, p = 0.07). After 5 days, pre-supplementation 1RM leg press values increased significantly, only with CNH (24.7 [8.8, 40.6] kg, but not PLA (13.9 [-15.7, 43.5] or CNL (14.6 [-0.5, 29.7]). Further, post-supplementation 1RM leg press recovery did not decrease significantly for CNH (-13.3 [-31.9, 5.3], but did for PLA (-30.5 [-53.4, -7.7] and CNL (-29.0 [-49.5, -8.4]). CNL treatment promoted an increase in bench press repetitions at 70% of 1RM during recovery on day 5 (PLA: 0.4 [-0.8, 1.6], CNL: 0.9 [0.35, 1.5], CNH: 0.5 [-0.2, 0.3], p = 0.56), greater leg press endurance prior to supplementation on day 5 (PLA: -0.2 [-1.6, 1.2], CNL: 0.9 [0.2, 1.6], CNH: 0.2 [-0.5, 0.9], p = 0.25) and greater leg press endurance during recovery on day 5 (PLA: -0.03 [-1.2, 1.1], CNL: 1.1 [0.3, 1.9], CNH: 0.4 [-0.4, 1.2], p = 0.23). Cycling time trial performance (4 km) was not affected. Results indicate that creatine nitrate supplementation, up to a 6 g dose, for 6 days, appears to be safe and provide some ergogenic benefit.

Keywords: creatine; dietary supplement; ergogenic aid; nitrate; safety.

Conflict of interest statement

C.P.E. serves as a paid consultant for Nutrabolt and is a Research Associate in the ESNL. Further, he holds scientific consultancies with Naturally Slim (Dallas, TX, USA) and Catapult Health (Dallas, TX, USA). R.B.K. serves as a university approved scientific advisor for Nutrabolt. P.S.M. served as quality assurance supervisor in accordance to a conflict of interest management plan that was approved by the university’s research and compliance office, the internal review board, and office of grants and contracts and monitored by research compliance. Remaining investigators have no competing interests to declare. The results from this study do not constitute endorsement by the authors and/or the institution concerning the nutrients investigated.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Overview of study design.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Testing sequence timeline. (A) Presents the testing sequence on days 0 and 5, while (B) shows the testing sequence on days 1 and 6 of supplementation.
Figure 3
Figure 3
CONSORT diagram.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Systolic blood pressure (A), diastolic blood pressure (B), and heart rate (C) responses from to the postural hemodynamic challenge test from baseline values for the placebo (PLA), low dose creatine nitrate (CNL), and high dose creatine nitrate (CNH) treatments. Data are mean changes (95% CI). Confidence intervals not crossing zero are statistically significant (p < 0.05). c Represents p < 0.05 difference from CNH. † Represents p > 0.05 to p < 0.05 effect.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Systolic blood pressure (A), diastolic blood pressure (B), and heart rate (C) responses from to the postural hemodynamic challenge test from baseline values for the placebo (PLA), low dose creatine nitrate (CNL), and high dose creatine nitrate (CNH) treatments. Data are mean changes (95% CI). Confidence intervals not crossing zero are statistically significant (p < 0.05). c Represents p < 0.05 difference from CNH. † Represents p > 0.05 to p < 0.05 effect.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Bench press one repetition maximum (1 RM) (A), bench press endurance (B), leg press 1 RM (C) and leg press endurance (D) changes from baseline values for the placebo (PLA), low dose creatine nitrate (CNL), and high dose creatine nitrate (CNH) treatments. Data are mean changes (95% CI). Confidence intervals not crossing zero are statistically significant (p < 0.05). a Represents p < 0.05 difference from PLA. b Represents p < 0.05 difference from CNL. † Represents p > 0.05 to p < 0.05 effect.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Bench press one repetition maximum (1 RM) (A), bench press endurance (B), leg press 1 RM (C) and leg press endurance (D) changes from baseline values for the placebo (PLA), low dose creatine nitrate (CNL), and high dose creatine nitrate (CNH) treatments. Data are mean changes (95% CI). Confidence intervals not crossing zero are statistically significant (p < 0.05). a Represents p < 0.05 difference from PLA. b Represents p < 0.05 difference from CNL. † Represents p > 0.05 to p < 0.05 effect.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Change in 4 km cycling time trial performance from day 1 to day 6 for the placebo (PLA), low dose creatine nitrate (CNL), and high dose creatine nitrate (CNH) treatments. Data are mean changes (95% CI). Confidence intervals not crossing zero are statistically significant (p < 0.05).

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