Study objectives: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). One of the main complaints in CFS is unrefreshing sleep. We aimed to study the nocturnal cardiac ANS in different sleep stages in patients filling the 2015 Institute of Medicine CFS diagnostic criteria.
Methods: In this case series study, the nocturnal heart rate variability and blood pressure (BP) variables in polysomnography were studied in groups of patients with CFS (n = 8) and tired controls (n = 8) aged 16-49 years. Five of the patients with CFS and controls were female. The heart rate variability and BP parameters and heart rate were studied in all sleep stages and wake.
Results: The amount of low-frequency oscillations of the electrocardiography R-R-intervals spectra (LF; predominantly reflects sympathetic activity) was higher for patients with CFS in all sleep stages compared to controls (P < .001). During wake, the amount of LF was lower for the patients with CFS (P < .05). The amount of high-frequency oscillations (HF; reflects parasympathetic activity) was lower in stage N3 sleep in the patients with CFS than for the controls (P < .0001), but, in total, HF was higher in patients with CFS (P < .001). Patients with CFS had higher overall nocturnal systolic and mean BP (P < .0001) and lower heart rate (P < .0001) than controls. No significant differences were found in sleep stage distributions.
Conclusions: The results suggest a nocturnal dysfunction of the cardiac ANS in CFS, presenting as lower parasympathetic tone in deep sleep and higher sympathetic tone asleep.
Keywords: autonomic nervous system; blood pressure; chronic fatigue syndrome; dysautonomia; heart rate variability; polysomnography; sleep; systemic exertion intolerance disease.
© 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine