Neuroborreliosis and Acute Encephalopathy: The Use of CXCL13 as a Biomarker in CNS Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 Feb;9(2):415-417. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.12.008. Epub 2017 Dec 11.


We report the case of an 80-year-old patient with acute onset confusion initially suspected to reflect delirium in incipient Alzheimer's disease. Cerebrospinal fluid tests revealed an unusually severe form of neuroborreliosis, which resolved following antibiotic treatment. This was mirrored in the measurement of CXCL13, which is suggested as a complementary biomarker. Clinical implications for screening, differential diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; CXCL13; Cerebrospinal fluid; Neuroborreliosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Brain Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Brain Diseases / microbiology
  • Chemokine CXCL13 / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Lyme Neuroborreliosis / diagnosis*
  • Lyme Neuroborreliosis / microbiology
  • Male


  • Biomarkers
  • CXCL13 protein, human
  • Chemokine CXCL13