A Novel Small-Specimen Planar Biaxial Testing System With Full In-Plane Deformation Control

J Biomech Eng. 2018 May 1;140(5):0510011-05100118. doi: 10.1115/1.4038779.


Simulations of soft tissues require accurate and robust constitutive models, whose form is derived from carefully designed experimental studies. For such investigations of membranes or thin specimens, planar biaxial systems have been used extensively. Yet, all such systems remain limited in their ability to: (1) fully prescribe in-plane deformation gradient tensor F2D, (2) ensure homogeneity of the applied deformation, and (3) be able to accommodate sufficiently small specimens to ensure a reasonable degree of material homogeneity. To address these issues, we have developed a novel planar biaxial testing device that overcomes these difficulties and is capable of full control of the in-plane deformation gradient tensor F2D and of testing specimens as small as ∼4 mm × ∼4 mm. Individual actuation of the specimen attachment points, combined with a robust real-time feedback control, enabled the device to enforce any arbitrary F2D with a high degree of accuracy and homogeneity. Results from extensive device validation trials and example tissues illustrated the ability of the device to perform as designed and gather data needed for developing and validating constitutive models. Examples included the murine aortic tissues, allowing for investigators to take advantage of the genetic manipulation of murine disease models. These capabilities highlight the potential of the device to serve as a platform for informing and verifying the results of inverse models and for conducting robust, controlled investigation into the biomechanics of very local behaviors of soft tissues and membrane biomaterials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aorta
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cattle
  • Finite Element Analysis
  • Materials Testing / instrumentation
  • Materials Testing / methods*
  • Mechanical Phenomena*
  • Mice
  • Pericardium
  • Software