Regulation of gene expression without changing the DNA sequence is governed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic regulation is important for changing chromatin structure in response to environmental cues as well as maintaining chromatin structure after cell division. The epigenetic machinery can reversibly change chromatin function, allowing a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms to be controlled. Epigenetic regulation ensures spatial and temporal accuracy of the expression of developmentally regulated genes. So far, few studies have focused on the relationship between epigenetic regulation and mammalian sex development, despite this being an interesting area of research. Sex development consists of three sequential stages: the undifferentiated stage, gonadal differentiation into testes or ovaries, and differentiation of internal and external genitalia. Some genetic studies have revealed that epigenetic regulation is required for proper gonadal differentiation in mice. Particularly, the epigenetic machinery plays an integral part in sex determination, which is the first step of gonadal differentiation. Mammalian sex determination is triggered by activation of the mammalian sex-determining gene, Sry, in a spatially and temporally accurate manner. Several studies have demonstrated that expression of Sry is controlled not only by specific transcription factors but also by the epigenetic machinery. Here, we focus on the epigenetic regulation of Sry expression.
Keywords: DNA methylation; Histone modification; Polycomb group protein; Sry; Transcription.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.