Comparison of TIVA with different combinations of ketamine-propofol mixtures in pediatric patients

J Anesth. 2018 Feb;32(1):104-111. doi: 10.1007/s00540-017-2438-8. Epub 2017 Dec 16.


Purpose: Adding ketamine to propofol has been suggested to be useful for sedation and general anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the effect of TIVA with different ratios of ketofol on recovery in children.

Methods: Seventy-five children aged 3-12 years and undergoing adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy surgery were randomized into three groups. Ratios of 1:5, 1:6.7 and 1:10 ketamine-propofol mixture (ketofol) were prepared in the same syringe for groups I, II and III, respectively. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were performed with 1:5, 1:6.7 and 1:10 ratios of ketofol in groups I, II and III, respectively. A McFarlan infusion dose regimen was used (15 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 13 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 11 mg/kg/h for 30 min) and infusion rates were decreased for the different ratios. Infusion rates were reduced to 67, 80 and 90% of the McFarlan dose regimen for groups I, II and III, respectively. Extubating time, length of stay in PACU, postoperative PAED and FLACC scores were recorded.

Results: Extubating time was significantly lower [mean 254.3 ± 92.7 s (95% CI 216.6-292.6, p = 0.001)] in group III than in groups I and II [371.3 ± 153 s (308.1-434.48) and 343.2 ± 123.7 s (292.2-394.3), respectively]. Length of stay in the PACU was lower in group III [median 15 min (interquartile range 15-20, p = 0.001)] than in groups I and II: 20 (15-27.5) and 20 min (20-27.5), respectively.

Conclusion: TIVA with a 1:10 ratio of ketofol admixture with a 90% reduction of McFarlan regimen can provide improved recovery conditions.

Trial registration: identifier: NCT02848963.

Keywords: Ketofol; Pediatric anesthesia; Recovery; TIVA.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia / methods*
  • Anesthetics, Intravenous / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ketamine / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Postoperative Period
  • Propofol / administration & dosage*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Anesthetics, Intravenous
  • Ketamine
  • Propofol

Associated data