Septo-hippocampal interaction

Cell Tissue Res. 2018 Sep;373(3):565-575. doi: 10.1007/s00441-017-2745-2. Epub 2017 Dec 18.


The septo-hippocampal pathway adjusts CA1 network excitability to different behavioral states and is crucially involved in theta rhythmogenesis. In the medial septum, cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons form a highly interconnected local network. Neurons of these three classes project to glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and different subsets of GABAergic neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. From there, GABAergic neurons project back to the medial septum and form a feedback loop between the two remote brain areas. In vivo, the firing of GABAergic medial septal neurons is theta modulated, while theta modulation is not observed in cholinergic neurons. One prominent feature of glutamatergic neurons is the correlation of their firing rates to the animals running speed. The cellular diversity, the high local interconnectivity and different activity patterns of medial septal neurons during different behaviors complicate the functional dissection of this network. New technical advances help to define specific functions of individual cell classes. In this review, we seek to highlight recent findings and elucidate functional implications of the septo-hippocampal connectivity on the microcircuit scale.

Keywords: Behavior; Hippocampus; Locomotion; Medial septum; Theta oscillation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior / physiology
  • Cholinergic Neurons / metabolism
  • GABAergic Neurons / metabolism
  • Hippocampus / anatomy & histology*
  • Hippocampus / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Locomotion
  • Memory
  • Models, Neurological
  • Pyramidal Cells / metabolism
  • Septal Nuclei / anatomy & histology*
  • Septal Nuclei / physiology*
  • Theta Rhythm