ACTG A5353: A Pilot Study of Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine for Initial Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected Participants With HIV-1 RNA <500000 Copies/mL

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 May 17;66(11):1689-1697. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1083.


Background: Limited data exist on initial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment with dolutegravir plus lamivudine.

Methods: A5353 is a phase 2, single-arm, pilot study of once-daily dolutegravir (50 mg) plus lamivudine (300 mg) in treatment-naive participants with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 and <500000 copies/mL. Exclusion criteria included active hepatitis B or major protease, reverse transcriptase, or integrase resistance. The primary efficacy measure was the proportion with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (FDA [US Food and Drug Administration] Snapshot) at week 24. Virologic failure (VF) was confirmed HIV-1 RNA >400 copies/mL at week 16/20 or >200 copies/mL at or after week 24. Dolutegravir levels and drug resistance testing were performed at VF.

Results: One hundred and twenty participants (87% male, median age 30 years, 37 (31%) HIV-1 RNA >100000 copies/mL) initiated study treatment. Median entry HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count were 4.61 log10 copies/mL and 387 cells/mm3. Virologic efficacy at week 24 was 108/120 (90%, confidence interval [83%, 95%]), with comparable results in the >100000 copies/mL and ≤100000 copies/mL strata, that is, 89% (75%, 97%) and 90% (82%, 96%), respectively. Three participants with VF, had undetected plasma dolutegravir at ≥1 time points; the M184V and R263R/K mutations developed in 1 participant. Two participants experienced grade 3 possible/probable treatment-related adverse events; none discontinued treatment due to adverse events.

Conclusions: Dolutegravir plus lamivudine demonstrated efficacy in individuals with pretreatment HIV-1 RNA up to 500000 copies/mL in this pilot trial, but a participant developed resistance mutations.

Clinical trials registration: NCT02582684.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV-1
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / administration & dosage
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine / administration & dosage
  • Lamivudine / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • RNA, Viral / blood*
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • RNA, Viral
  • Lamivudine
  • dolutegravir

Associated data