High Expression of GRK3 Is Associated With Favorable Prognosis in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Pathol Res Pract. 2018 Feb;214(2):228-232. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2017.11.013. Epub 2017 Nov 20.


Background: It was found that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) played key biological roles in some cancers. However, its associations with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unknown.

Methods and methods: Expression of GRK3 was detected, using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, in paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor and non-tumor samples from 165 patients with PDAC after curative resection, and was further correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and cancer-specific survival (CSS).

Results: It was shown that GRK3 expression was much lower in tumor than in non-tumor tissues. Moreover, expression of GRK3 in tumor tissues was significantly associated with gender and T stage. Univariately, high GRK3 expression was predictive for favorable CSS, along with some conventional clinicopathologic variables. In multivariate Cox regression test, GRK3 expression remained to be a significant prognostic marker for PDAC. Finally, combination of GRK3 with some clinicopathologic variables, especially N stage, obtained more precise prediction for CSS.

Conclusions: Our data suggested that expression of GRK3 was down-regulated in PDAC and was an independent prognostic factor.

Keywords: G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3; Immunohistochemistry; Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; Prognosis; Tissue microarray.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / metabolism*
  • Female
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading / methods
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Ducts / pathology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Prognosis


  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3
  • GRK3 protein, human