Adropin is a secreted protein that regulates endothelial function. However, adropin levels in obese adolescent patients are currently uncertain. Therefore, we evaluated the association between plasma adropin levels and vascular endothelial function and investigated the effect of aerobic exercise in obese adolescents. A total of 45 obese adolescents and 20 controls (age 16-19 years) were included in our study. The obese adolescents received 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Serum adropin was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vascular reactive hyperemia indexes (RHIs) were obtained using Endo-PAT2000. Adropin levels and RHI were significantly lower in obese adolescents than in normal-weight adolescents. Adropin levels and RHI increased significantly independently of changes in body weight after an exercise intervention (P < 0.01). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that adropin levels positively correlated with HDL-C levels (r = 0.389, P < 0.01) and RHI (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that the insulin resistance index (t = -3.301, P < 0.01) and HDL-C level (t = 2.620, P = 0.011) were independent risk factors of adropin levels. In addition, Δadropin (t = 3.261, P < 0.01) was an independent influencing factor of ΔRHI. Our findings suggest that adropin plays an important role in vascular endothelial function in obese adolescents.