Neuroticism is a relatively stable personality trait characterized by negative emotionality (for example, worry and guilt) 1 ; heritability estimated from twin studies ranges from 30 to 50% 2 , and SNP-based heritability ranges from 6 to 15% 3-6 . Increased neuroticism is associated with poorer mental and physical health 7,8 , translating to high economic burden 9 . Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of neuroticism have identified up to 11 associated genetic loci 3,4 . Here we report 116 significant independent loci from a GWAS of neuroticism in 329,821 UK Biobank participants; 15 of these loci replicated at P < 0.00045 in an unrelated cohort (N = 122,867). Genetic signals were enriched in neuronal genesis and differentiation pathways, and substantial genetic correlations were found between neuroticism and depressive symptoms (r g = 0.82, standard error (s.e.) = 0.03), major depressive disorder (MDD; r g = 0.69, s.e. = 0.07) and subjective well-being (r g = -0.68, s.e. = 0.03) alongside other mental health traits. These discoveries significantly advance understanding of neuroticism and its association with MDD.