Prevalence of diabetic foot syndrome amongst population with type 2 diabetes in Pakistan in primary care settings

J Pak Med Assoc. 2017 Dec;67(12):1818-1824.


Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at 25 centres across eight cities in Pakistan from August 2010 to March 2011, and comprised adult type 2 diabetics. The subjects underwent ankle brachial pressure index evaluation for diabetic foot, and neurological assessment using 10g monofilament for sensation and 128Hz tuning fork to elicit vibration.

Results: Of the 230 subjects, 94(40.86%) were males and 136(59.13%) females. The overall mean age was 53.82±9.96 years and mean glycated haemoglobin was 8.81±2.04%. The prevalence of diabetic foot syndrome was 32(13.9%). Based on established diabetic foot risk classification, 37(16.08%) patients were in category-1, 6(2.60%) in category-2, 32(13.91%) in category-3 and 148(64.34%) in category-0. On ankle brachial pressure index assessment, 94(40.86%) patients had impaired values (p<0.9). Sensation was impaired in 50(21.73%) patients, vibrations could not be detected in 37(16.08%), ankle reflexes could not be elicited in 35(15.21%), and foot pulses could not palpated in 28(12.17%) patients.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of diabetic foot syndrome was observed.

Keywords: Diabetic foot/epidemiology, Foot ulcer, Diabetes mellitus Type 2, Amputation, Risk factors..

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Foot / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Primary Health Care