Contact Dermatitis Associated With Skin Cleansers: Retrospective Analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group Data 2000-2014

Dermatitis. Jan/Feb 2018;29(1):32-42. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000330.

Abstract

Background: There is limited information regarding contact dermatitis (CD) associated with skin cleansers (SCs).

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic patch test (APT) reactions and irritant CD (ICD) associated with SCs.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed using North American Contact Dermatitis Group data, 2000-2014.

Results: Of 32,945 tested patients, 1069 (3.24%) had either APT reaction or ICD associated with SCs. Of these, 692 (64.7%) had APT reaction only, 350 (32.7%) had ICD only, and 27 (2.5%) had both. Individuals with APT reaction and/or ICD were more likely to have occupationally related skin disease (relative risk [RR] = 3.8 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 3.3-4.5] for APT reaction and 10.0 [95% CI = 8.2-12.2] for ICD, respectively, P < 0.0001). As compared with those without APT reaction to SC, individuals with APT reaction had significantly higher frequencies of hand (RR = 2.4 [95% CI = 2.1-2.7]) and arm dermatitis (RR = 1.3 [95% CI = 1.1-1.6], P ≤ 0.001). Irritant CD was strongly associated with hand dermatitis (RR = 6.2 [95% CI = 5.2-7.3], P < 0.0001). More than 50 allergens were associated with SCs including quaternium-15 (11.2%), cocamidopropyl betaine (9.5%), methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (8.4%), coconut diethanolamide (7.9%), fragrance mix I (7.7%), Myroxylon pereirae (5.9%), 4-chloro-3,5-xylenol (5.8%), amidoamine (5.5%), and formaldehyde (4.4%).

Conclusions: Many allergens, especially preservatives and surfactants, were associated with SCs. Most cases involved the hands and were occupationally related.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Allergens / adverse effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Databases, Factual
  • Dermatitis, Contact / epidemiology*
  • Dermatitis, Contact / etiology
  • Dermatitis, Occupational / epidemiology
  • Dermatitis, Occupational / etiology
  • Detergents / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Patch Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies

Substances

  • Allergens
  • Detergents