Water-soluble factors eluated from surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler promote osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

Mol Med Rep. 2018 Mar;17(3):3448-3454. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.8287. Epub 2017 Dec 18.


Surface pre-reacted glass‑ionomer (S‑PRG)-containing dental materials, including composite and coating resins have been used for the restoration and/or prevention of dental cavities. S‑PRG is known to have the ability to release aluminum, boron, fluorine, silicon, and strontium ions. Aluminum ions are known to be inhibitors whereas boron, fluorine, silicon, and strontium ions are known to be promoters of mineralization, via osteoblasts. However, it remains to be clarified how an aqueous eluate obtained from S‑PRG containing these ions affects the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are known to be present in dental pulp and bone marrow, to differentiate into osteogenic cell types. The present study demonstrated that 200‑ to 1,000‑fold‑diluted aqueous eluates obtained from S‑PRG significantly upregulated the mRNA expression level of the osteogenic differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase in human MSCs (hMSCs) without exhibiting the cytotoxic effect. In addition, the 500‑ to 1,000‑fold‑diluted aqueous eluates obtained from S‑PRG significantly and clearly promoted mineralization of the extracellular matrix of hMSCs. It was additionally demonstrated that hMSCs cultured on the cured resin composites containing S‑PRG fillers exhibited osteogenic differentiation in direct correlation with the weight percent of S‑PRG fillers. These results strongly suggested that aqueous eluates of S‑PRG fillers promoted hard tissue formation by hMSCs, implicating that resins containing S‑PRG may act as a useful biomaterial to cover accidental exposure of dental pulp.

Keywords: surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer; water-soluble factor; osteoblastic differentiation; mesenchymal stem cell.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylic Resins / chemistry
  • Acrylic Resins / pharmacology*
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / genetics
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Dental Materials / chemistry
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Osteoblasts / cytology
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Silicon Dioxide / chemistry
  • Silicon Dioxide / pharmacology*
  • Up-Regulation / drug effects
  • Water / chemistry


  • Acrylic Resins
  • Dental Materials
  • RNA, Messenger
  • glass ionomer
  • Water
  • Silicon Dioxide
  • Alkaline Phosphatase