Education and exercise program improves osteoporosis knowledge and changes calcium and vitamin D dietary intake in community dwelling elderly

BMC Public Health. 2017 Dec 19;17(1):966. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4966-4.


Background: Several educational intervention programs have been designed and developed to improve osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment. However, most of the prior studies focused on how educational intervention programs affected diagnosis and treatment of condition of osteoporosis. The purpose of this prospective and educational intervention study was to evaluate the changes in osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, fall self-efficacy, physical exercise and changes in dietary pattern of calcium and vitamin D intake after osteoporosis education.

Methods: From November 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016, 271 eligible candidates (who were over 50 years old and from 23 different community centers) were recruited through an announcement made by the public office, by two health care providers. The intervention involved an individualized education program to allow for differences in antecedent educational levels regarding several aspects of osteoporosis, including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, awareness of self-efficacy risk factors relating to an accidental fall and nutritional education (including the importance of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake). The researchers revisited the community centers three months after the initial visit.

Results: Of the 271 potential participants, 199 (73.4%; 43 men and 156 women) completed the education program and the second questionnaire. After education intervention, parameters including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy and fall self-efficacy were improved (P < 0.0001). After education regarding percentage of calcium and vitamin D intake below recommended cut-offs, inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were decreased (P < 0.0001) from 89.4% (178/199) and 84.4% (168/199) to 79.9% (159/199) and 65.8% (131/199), respectively, at the three-month follow-up. (p = 0.038, p = 0.017).

Conclusions: This prospective intervention study demonstrated that education on osteoporosis knowledge and regular exercise programs could improve osteoporosis self- efficacy, fall self-efficacy and increase dietary calcium and vitamin D intake.

Keywords: Calcium; Education; Exercise; Osteoporosis knowledge; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Accidental Falls / prevention & control
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Exercise Therapy*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Independent Living
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / psychology
  • Osteoporosis / therapy*
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Prospective Studies
  • Self Efficacy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Vitamin D