Genetic risk factors for late age-related macular degeneration in India

Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 Sep;102(9):1213-1217. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-311384. Epub 2017 Dec 19.


Background/aims: There are limited data from India on genetic variants influencing late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have previously reported associations from a population-based study in India (the India age-related eye disease study (INDEYE)) of early AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ARMS2/HTRA1 and no association with CFH, C2 or CFB. Late AMD cases were too few for meaningful analyses. We aimed to investigate SNPs for late AMD through case enrichment and extend the loci for early AMD.

Methods: Fundus images of late AMD hospital cases were independently graded by the modified Wisconsin AMD grading scheme. In total 510 cases with late AMD (14 geographic atrophy and 496 neovascular AMD (nvAMD)), 1876 with early AMD and 1176 with no signs of AMD underwent genotyping for selected SNPs. We investigated genotype and per-allele additive associations (OR and 95% CIs) with nvAMD or early AMD. Bonferroni adjusted P values are presented.

Results: We found associations with nvAMD for CFHY402H variant (rs1061170) (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.37, P=10-6), ARMS2 (rs10490924) (OR=2.94, 95% CI 2.45 to 3.52, P=10-9), C2 (rs547154) (OR=0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.85, P=0.01), ABCA1 (rs1883025) (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.92, P=0.04) and an SNP near VEGFA (rs4711751) (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.77, P=10-3). We found no associations of TLR3 (rs3775291), CFD (rs3826945), FRK (rs1999930) or LIPC (rs10468017) or APOE ε4 alleles with nvAMD or early AMD, nor between early AMD and rs1883025 or rs4711751.

Conclusions: The major genetic determinants of nvAMD risk in India are similar to those in other ancestries, while findings for early AMD suggest potential differences in the pathophysiology of AMD development.

Keywords: epidemiology; genetics; macula; retina.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA / genetics*
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / epidemiology
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / genetics*
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / metabolism


  • ARMS2 protein, human
  • Proteins
  • DNA