Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an increasingly prevalent therapy in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Conduction disturbances requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation are a known complication of TAVR. This study investigated the progression of cardiac conduction disease in the post-TAVR pacemaker population and identified predictors of post-TAVR right ventricular (RV) pacing dependence.
Methods: Prospectively collected echocardiographic, ECG, and PPM interrogation data of 262 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR with placement of a balloon-expandable valve at one institution from March 2012 to October 2016 were analyzed.
Results: A total of 25 patients (11.1%) required post-TAVR PPM implantation. Seventeen patients who received PPMs did not require RV pacing at 30 days. Nine of these 17 patients had no RV pacing requirement within 10 days. Pre-existing right bundle branch block (RBBB) (OR 105.4, 4.52-2458.5, p = 0.0002), bifascicular block (OR 12.50, 1.60-97.65, p = 0.02), intra-procedural complete heart block (OR 12.83, 1.26-130.52, p = 0.03), and QRS duration > 120 ms (OR 70.43, 3.23-1535.22, p = 0.0002) on pre-TAVR ECG were associated with RV pacing dependence at 30 days.
Conclusions: Sixty-eight percent of patients meeting post-procedural guideline indications for PPM did not require RV pacing at 30 days. Fifty-two percent of these patients demonstrated recovery of sinus node function or AV conduction within 10 days post-implant. RBBB, intra-procedural complete heart block, bifascicular block, and QRS duration > 120 ms were associated with RV pacing dependence at 30 days. These findings suggest that post-TAVR conduction disturbances may be acutely reversible in a significant proportion of patients receiving PPM within 10-30 days of implant.
Keywords: Edwards SAPIEN valve; Pacemaker dependence; TAVR; Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; Transcatheter aortic valve replacement.