Cognitive Improving Effects by Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium crymbosum L.) Vinegar on Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice Model

J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Jan 10;66(1):99-107. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03965. Epub 2017 Dec 20.


The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) vinegar (BV) on cognitive functions in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia model in mice. In this study, Sco (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to induce amnesia. ICR mice were orally administered donepezil (5 mg/kg), blueberry extract (120 mg/kg), and BV (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. After inducing cognitive impairment by Sco, a behavioral assessment using behavior tests (i.e., Y-maze and passive avoidance tests) was performed. The BV group showed significantly restored cognitive function in the behavioral tests. BV facilitated cholinergic activity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. Furthermore, BV was found to be rehabilitated in the cornu ammonis 1 neurons of hippocampus. In our study, we demonstrated that the memory protection conferred by BV was linked to activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/serine-threonine kinase (AKT) signaling.

Keywords: AChE activity; BDNF/CREB/AKT pathway; amnesia; behavior tests; blueberry vinegar; scopolamine.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholine / metabolism
  • Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism
  • Amnesia / chemically induced
  • Amnesia / drug therapy*
  • Animals
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Blueberry Plants / chemistry*
  • Cerebral Cortex / drug effects
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism
  • Cognition / drug effects*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hippocampus / drug effects
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Maze Learning
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Scopolamine / toxicity


  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Scopolamine
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Acetylcholine