Neuroimaging findings in Pallister-Killian syndrome

Neuroradiol J. 2018 Aug;31(4):403-411. doi: 10.1177/1971400917744798. Epub 2017 Dec 20.


Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare chromosomal duplication disorder caused by additional copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p). Clinically PKS is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism with neonatal frontotemporal alopecia, hypertelorism, and low-set ears as well as kyphoscoliosis, severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and abnormal muscle tone. Comprehensive high-resolution brain MR findings of PKS in childhood have not been previously illustrated in the medical literature. We present detailed neuroimaging findings from a child with PKS and thoroughly review previously reported structural brain abnormalities in this patient population. MRI abnormalities common to PKS include cerebral volume loss, malformations of cortical development, corpus callosum dysgenesis, white matter disease, and craniofacial malformations. In our patient, new findings of perisylvian with occipital polymicrogyria, vermian dysplasia, brachium pontis signal abnormality, dural anomalies, and unilateral atlas assimilation were noted. Micrencephaly and cortical dysplasia provide a likely explanation for severe intellectual disability and epilepsy in this patient population.

Keywords: Isochromosome 12p; Killian; Pallister; neurogenetics; polymicrogyria; tetrasomy 12p.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnostic imaging
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / etiology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / therapy
  • Adolescent
  • Brain / diagnostic imaging*
  • Chromosome Disorders / diagnostic imaging*
  • Chromosome Disorders / therapy
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuroimaging

Supplementary concepts

  • Pallister Killian syndrome