A two-site monoclonal antibody (Mab) ELISA was developed to measure the Group I allergens from Dermatophagoides spp., Der p I from D. pteronyssinus and Der f I from D. farinae. Species-specific Mabs were used to coat microtiter plates which were then incubated with allergen or house dust extracts. Bound allergen was detected using a biotinylated Mab which recognized a common epitope on both Der p I and Der f I, followed by the addition of streptavidin-peroxidase and ABTS/H2O2 substrate. The assay had low non-specific binding (approximately 0.08 absorbance units) and had a sensitivity of 5 ng/nl for aqueous allergen extracts (equivalent to 0.1 microgram allergen/g dust). 53 dust samples were assayed using the Mab ELISA and an RIA previously described using 125I-labelled Mab. The results showed a very good quantitative correlation between the assays (r = 0.96, p less than 0.001 for Der p I; r = 0.92, P less than 0.001 for Der f I). A further 132 dust samples from a different geographical areas were also assayed by both methods and gave correlation coefficients of 0.90 (P less than 0.001) and 0.86 (P less than 0.001) for Der p I and Der f I, respectively. The Mab ELISA will be useful in epidemiological studies of allergic asthma, both in the assessment of levels of dust mite allergen present in houses and the efficacy of allergen avoidance regimes.