An unusual assay was developed for the serologic diagnosis of recent primary infection by Toxoplasma gondii. This test measures the antigen-binding avidity of toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. Serum samples from 5 patients with recent primary toxoplasma infection were compared with those from 21 subjects with preexisting toxoplasma immunity. Patients with primary infection exhibited a low avidity of toxoplasma-specific IgG, which persisted for several months after the onset of symptoms of toxoplasmosis. In contrast, all subjects with past immunity had a high avidity of toxoplasma-IgG. This IgG avidity assay should assist in the diagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis and may be used to identify pregnancies that are at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis.