To test the hypothesis that spironolactone-hydrochlorothiazide (Aldactazide) will improve urine output and lung function in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we studied 21 hospitalized, spontaneously breathing, oxygen-dependent infants with chronic bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Infants were randomly assigned to receive either a 1:1 mixture of spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide orally (n = 12) (3 mg/kg/day of both compounds) or no treatment (n = 9) for 6 to 8 days each. Dynamic lung compliance, total pulmonary resistance, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation were measured on the first and last days of each study period. Fluid intake and urine output were measured each day. Although the treatment significantly increased urine output, neither lung mechanics nor oxygenation were improved by the drug. The magnitude of the diuresis achieved with spironolactone-hydrochlorothiazide treatment was comparable to the diuresis achieved in a previous study of furosemide treatment (J Pediatr 1986:109;1034-9). Statistical analysis indicated that a type II error was an unlikely explanation for our failure to detect a beneficial effect. In three patients, doubling the oral dose did not improve lung mechanics or oxygenation. We speculate that diuresis per se is not responsible for lung function improvement during treatment with other drugs with diuretic properties.