The nature and extent of the immune dysfunctions in 20 immunodeficient patients, as well as the immunocompetence of 22 control subjects, were verified by cell-mediated responsiveness and immunoglobulin quantitations. Comparisons of the microbial composition of supragingival plaque between the two populations showed that a greater number of immunodeficient than control subjects harbored Candida sp. and Staphylococcus sp. Conversely, a lower number of immunodeficient than control subjects harbored Streptococcus mutans. Also, patients with immune dysfunctions had a lower dental caries experience than their immunocompetent counterparts.