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. 2017 Dec 15;12:35.
doi: 10.1186/s12263-017-0584-0. eCollection 2017.

Proposed Guidelines to Evaluate Scientific Validity and Evidence for Genotype-Based Dietary Advice

Free PMC article

Proposed Guidelines to Evaluate Scientific Validity and Evidence for Genotype-Based Dietary Advice

Keith A Grimaldi et al. Genes Nutr. .
Free PMC article


Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic subgroup level relative to generic dietary advice. Nutrigenetics is unregulated, with no defined standards, beyond some commercially adopted codes of practice. Only a few official nutrition-related professional bodies have embraced the subject, and, consequently, there is a lack of educational resources or guidance for implementation of the outcomes of nutrigenetic research. To avoid misuse and to protect the public, personalised nutrigenetic advice and information should be based on clear evidence of validity grounded in a careful and defensible interpretation of outcomes from nutrigenetic research studies. Evidence requirements are clearly stated and assessed within the context of state-of-the-art 'evidence-based nutrition'. We have developed and present here a draft framework that can be used to assess the strength of the evidence for scientific validity of nutrigenetic knowledge and whether 'actionable'. In addition, we propose that this framework be used as the basis for developing transparent and scientifically sound advice to the public based on nutrigenetic tests. We feel that although this area is still in its infancy, minimal guidelines are required. Though these guidelines are based on semi-quantitative data, they should stimulate debate on their utility. This framework will be revised biennially, as knowledge on the subject increases.

Keywords: Dietary advice; Framework; Gene-environment interaction; Genetic variants; Genotype; Health; Nutrigenetics; Personalised nutrition.

Conflict of interest statement

Not applicable.Not applicable.KAG was employed by Sciona, Inc. (a provider of genetic testing services) from 2002 to 2008 and is founder/director of the personal genetics services company Eurogenetica Ltd and is Chief Scientific Officer for DNAFit. BVO, EC, BDK, LV and JB are employees of TNO, an organisation that implements system-based personalised nutrition including genetic variations. IB and PW are employees of DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., a leading manufacturer of vitamins and carotenoids. Both declare to have no competing interests. AE-S holds shares in Nutrigenomix Inc. JK is working for Habit. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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