Unique regulation of Na-glutamine cotransporter SN2/SNAT5 in rabbit intestinal crypt cells during chronic enteritis

J Cell Mol Med. 2018 Mar;22(3):1443-1451. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13257. Epub 2017 Dec 22.


The only Na-nutrient cotransporter described in mammalian small intestinal crypt cells is SN2/SNAT5, which facilitates glutamine uptake. In a rabbit model of chronic intestinal inflammation, SN2 stimulation is secondary to an increase in affinity of the cotransporter for glutamine. However, the immune regulation of SN2 in the crypt cells during chronic intestinal inflammation is unknown. We sought to determine the mechanism of regulation of Na-nutrient cotransporter SN2 by arachidonic acid metabolites in crypt cells. The small intestines of New Zealand white male rabbits were inflamed via inoculation with Eimeria magna oocytes. After 2-week incubation, control and inflamed rabbits were subjected to intramuscular injections of arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK), piroxicam and MK886 for 48 hrs. After injections, the rabbits were euthanized and crypt cells from small intestines were harvested and used.

Results: Treatment of rabbits with ATK prevented the release of AA and reversed stimulation of SN2. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) with piroxicam did not affect stimulation of SN2. However, inhibition of lipoxygenase (LOX) with MK886, thus reducing leukotriene formation during chronic enteritis, reversed the stimulation of SN2. Kinetic studies showed that the mechanism of restoration of SN2 by ATK or MK886 was secondary to the restoration of the affinity of the cotransporter for glutamine. For all treatment conditions, Western blot analysis revealed no change in SN2 protein levels. COX inhibition proved ineffective at reversing the stimulation of SN2. Thus, this study provides evidence that SN2 stimulation in crypt cells is mediated by the leukotriene pathway during chronic intestinal inflammation.

Keywords: Glutamine transport; SN2/SNAT5; leukotrienes; prostaglandins and crypt cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral / genetics
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Arachidonic Acid / metabolism
  • Arachidonic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Coccidiosis / drug therapy
  • Coccidiosis / metabolism*
  • Coccidiosis / parasitology
  • Coccidiosis / pathology
  • Eimeria / drug effects
  • Eimeria / pathogenicity
  • Eimeria / physiology
  • Enteritis / drug therapy
  • Enteritis / metabolism*
  • Enteritis / parasitology
  • Enteritis / pathology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Glutamine / metabolism
  • Ileum / drug effects
  • Ileum / metabolism
  • Ileum / parasitology
  • Ileum / pathology
  • Indoles / pharmacology*
  • Leukotrienes / metabolism
  • Lipoxygenase / genetics
  • Lipoxygenase / metabolism
  • Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / genetics
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism
  • Rabbits
  • Sodium / metabolism


  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Arachidonic Acids
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Indoles
  • Leukotrienes
  • Lipoxygenase Inhibitors
  • SLC38A5 protein, human
  • arachidonyltrifluoromethane
  • MK-886
  • Glutamine
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Sodium
  • Lipoxygenase
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases