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Review
, 68, 1-14

Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Therapies: In Vivo Applications and Development

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Review

Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Therapies: In Vivo Applications and Development

Martin T Spang et al. Acta Biomater.

Abstract

Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) has been widely used for tissue engineering applications and is becoming increasingly versatile as it can take many forms, including patches, powders, and hydrogels. Following additional processing, decellularized ECM can form an inducible hydrogel that can be injected, providing for new minimally-invasive procedure opportunities. ECM hydrogels have been derived from numerous tissue sources and applied to treat many disease models, such as ischemic injuries and organ regeneration or replacement. This review will focus on in vivo applications of ECM hydrogels and functional outcomes in disease models, as well as discuss considerations for clinical translation.

Statement of significance: Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel therapies are being developed to treat diseased or damaged tissues and organs throughout the body. Many ECM hydrogels are progressing from in vitro models to in vivo biocompatibility studies and functional models. There is significant potential for clinical translation of these therapies since one ECM hydrogel therapy is already in a Phase 1 clinical trial.

Keywords: Decellularization; Extracellular matrix; Hydrogel; Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Images of the workflow for developing injectable decellularized hydrogels. After continuous agitation in detergent solution, decellularized tissue is lyophilized and milled to yield only the extracellular matrix (ECM). Milled ECM can either be (1) suspended in solution and remain a non-free-standing solution, or (2) undergo enzymatic digestion to form an inducible non-flowing hydrogel. Images were reprinted from [62] with permission from Elsevier.
Figure 2
Figure 2
ECM hydrogels injected for therapeutic applications throughout the body. Images were reprinted with permissions from Elsevier [26, 31, 61, 79, 85, 89, 93, 103], Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. [82], Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. [97], and the American Chemical Society [22].

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