Tuberculosis, social determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV)

Pulmonology. 2018 Mar-Apr;24(2):115-119. doi: 10.1016/j.rppnen.2017.11.003. Epub 2017 Dec 21.


The risk of exposure, progression to active tuberculosis (TB) and then to cure is a process affected by several risk factors. Along with well known risk factors such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), use of immunosuppressive drugs and being of young age, emerging risk factors such socio-economic and behavioral aspects play a significant role in increasing the susceptibility to infection, and unsuccessful treatment outcomes. This paper summarizes the effects of these socio-economic determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV) on TB infection and disease.

Keywords: Alcohol; HIV; Homeless; Malnutrition; Overcrowding; Poverty; Socio-economic determinants; Tobacco; Tuberculosis; Undernutrition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Comorbidity
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Tuberculosis / complications*
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology*