An investigation of the extension of O'KEEFE and NADEL's [The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1978] theory of hippocampal functioning is described in patients who have undergone unilateral temporal lobectomy for the relief of epilepsy. A new spatial task, incorporating a recall-for-designs test but based on studies of spatial memory and cognitive mapping in animals was devised. Results supported the prediction of temporal lobe structure involvement in the mediation of non-egocentric but not egocentric space, and of the role of right temporal lobe structures in conditions designed to encourage "place" but not "cue" learning strategies. The role of verbal mediation in task performance is also discussed.