Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Minerals and Antioxidant Activity of Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) Fruits

Molecules. 2017 Dec 26;23(1):53. doi: 10.3390/molecules23010053.


The extraction efficiency of major classes of phenolics from lingonberries grown in the central region of Poland was evaluated. The ethanol-water solution (60:40, v/v) resulted in the highest extraction yields; however, the results obtained for ethyl acetate were only slightly lower. Total phenolics estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay ranged from 468 to 661 mg of GA/100 g fresh weight (fw), while total flavonoids were in the range of 53.2-67.8 μmol/100 g fw. Both solvents exhibited comparable potential for monomeric anthocyanin extraction (26.1-43.0 mg CGE/100 g of fw). The content of several minerals in these fruits and in soil collected from the same places were compared. The essential metal concentrations in all samples increased in the following order: Cr < Cu < Zn < Fe. The levels of toxic elements (Cd, Pb) were acceptable to human consumption for most tested samples. The ethanol-water extracts exhibited the highest scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, while the highest reducing capacity evaluated by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) was obtained for ethyl acetate extracts.

Keywords: anthocyanins; antioxidant activity; flavonoids; lingonberries; minerals; polyphenols.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry
  • Biphenyl Compounds / metabolism
  • Flavonoids / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / metabolism
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Metals / chemistry*
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Picrates / chemistry
  • Picrates / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Soil
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Vaccinium vitis-idaea / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Flavonoids
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Metals
  • Phenols
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Soil
  • Solvents
  • folin
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl