CCL4 is the only predictor for non-responder in GT-1 CHC patients with favorable IL28B genotype when treated with PegIFN/RBV

BMC Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec 29;17(1):169. doi: 10.1186/s12876-017-0724-4.


Background: Chemokines/cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, their clinical characteristics and implications in treatment responses to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment (PegIFN/RBV) have not been fully illustrated yet. In this study, we intended to investigate the possible predictability of serum chemokines/cytokines on the treatment response in Taiwanese of CHC, genotype-1 (GT-1).

Methods: 60 Patients with GT-1 CHC infection who had been treated with PegIFN/RBV were enrolled, including 27 (45%) with sustained virological response (SVR), 11 (18%) with relapse after 48 weeks of treatment and 22 (37%) non-response (NR). Clinical parameters, seven chemokines/cytokines, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IL-10 and IFN-γ, and genotypes of rs12979860, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-28B (IL28B) were analyzed for their relationship to treatment response.

Results: Baseline serum levels of CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL3 and CCL4 were significantly higher in NR group while comparing with non-NR group. (CXCL10: p = 0.001; CXCL11: p < 0.001; CCL3: p = 0.006; CCL4: p = 0.005). However, only rs12979860 CC genotype was the independent factors for NR in GT-1 CHC infection (OR, 8.985; p = 0.008). In addition, baseline serum level of CCL4 was found to be the only independent factor for NR in GT-1 CHC patients with favorable IL28B genotype (OR, 1.134; p = 0.039).

Conclusions: IL28B genotype is the predictor for NR in GT-1 CHC patients treated with PegIFN/RBV, while baseline serum level of CCL4 is the only predictor for NR in GT-1 CHC patients with favorable IL28B genotype.

Keywords: Chemokines; Chronic hepatitis C; Cytokines; Genotype-1; Interleukin-28B polymorphism; Treatment response.

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Chemokines / blood*
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / genetics
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Interferon alpha-2
  • Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use*
  • Interferons
  • Interleukins / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use*
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • IFNL3 protein, human
  • Interferon alpha-2
  • Interferon-alpha
  • Interleukins
  • RNA, Viral
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Interferons
  • peginterferon alfa-2b
  • peginterferon alfa-2a