Differential diagnostics of female "sexual" fluids: a narrative review

Int Urogynecol J. 2018 May;29(5):621-629. doi: 10.1007/s00192-017-3527-9. Epub 2017 Dec 28.


Introduction and hypothesis: Women expel various kinds of fluids during sexual activities. These are manifestations of sexual arousal and orgasm or coital incontinence. This study is aimed at suggesting a diagnostic scheme to differentiate among these phenomena.

Methods: Web of Science and Ovid (MEDLINE) databases were systematically searched from 1950 to 2017 for articles on various fluid expulsion phenomena in women during sexual activities, which contain relevant information on sources and composition of the expelled fluids.

Results: An ultra-filtrate of blood plasma of variable quantity, which is composed of transvaginal transudate at sexual stimulation, enables vaginal lubrication. Female ejaculation (FE) is the secretion of a few milliliters of thick, milky fluid by the female prostate (Skene's glands) during orgasm, which contains prostate-specific antigen. Squirting (SQ) is defined as the orgasmic transurethral expulsion of tenths of milliliters of a form of urine containing various concentrations of urea, creatinine, and uric acid. FE and SQ are two phenomena with different mechanisms. Coital incontinence (CI) could be classified into penetration and orgasm forms, which could be associated with stress urinary incontinence or detrusor hyperactivity.

Conclusion: Squirting, FE, and CI are different phenomena with various mechanisms and could be differentiated according to source, quantity, expulsion mechanism, and subjective feelings during sexual activities.

Keywords: Coital incontinence; Female ejaculation; Female prostate; Squirting; Vaginal lubrication.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bodily Secretions / physiology*
  • Coitus*
  • Ejaculation* / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Orgasm*
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Urethra
  • Urinary Incontinence, Stress / physiopathology