Carotenoid profiles of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits differing in ripening states and in different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, and calyx of ripe fruits) were investigated by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSn. Out of the 53 carotenoids detected, 42 were tentatively identified. The carotenoid profile of unripe fruits is dominated by (all-E)-lutein (51%), whereas in ripe fruits, (all-E)-β-carotene (55%) and several carotenoid fatty acid esters, especially lutein esters esterified with myristic and palmitic acid as monoesters or diesters, were found. In overripe fruits, carotenoid conversion products and a higher proportion of carotenoid monoesters to diesters compared to ripe fruits were observed. Overripe fruits showed a significant decrease in total carotenoids of about 31% due to degradation. The observed conversion and degradation processes included epoxidation, isomerization, and deesterification. The peel of ripe goldenberries showed a 2.8 times higher total carotenoid content of 332.00 µg/g dw compared to the pulp.
Keywords: Beta-carotene (PubChem CID: 5280489); Beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide (PubChem CID: 5281231); Carotenoids; Fruit fraction; Goldenberry; HPLC-MS; Helenien (PubChem CID: 5281240); Identification; Lutein (PubChem CID: 5281243); Lutein 3′-O-palmitate (PubChem CID: 87439880); Lutein 5,6-epoxide (PubChem CID: 5281244); Lutein dimyristate (PubChem CID: 11263184); Physalis peruviana L.; Ripening state; Xanthophyll esters; β-Carotene.
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