Characterization of carotenoid profiles in goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits at various ripening stages and in different plant tissues by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n

Food Chem. 2018 Apr 15;245:508-517. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.120. Epub 2017 Nov 5.


Carotenoid profiles of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits differing in ripening states and in different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, and calyx of ripe fruits) were investigated by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSn. Out of the 53 carotenoids detected, 42 were tentatively identified. The carotenoid profile of unripe fruits is dominated by (all-E)-lutein (51%), whereas in ripe fruits, (all-E)-β-carotene (55%) and several carotenoid fatty acid esters, especially lutein esters esterified with myristic and palmitic acid as monoesters or diesters, were found. In overripe fruits, carotenoid conversion products and a higher proportion of carotenoid monoesters to diesters compared to ripe fruits were observed. Overripe fruits showed a significant decrease in total carotenoids of about 31% due to degradation. The observed conversion and degradation processes included epoxidation, isomerization, and deesterification. The peel of ripe goldenberries showed a 2.8 times higher total carotenoid content of 332.00 µg/g dw compared to the pulp.

Keywords: Beta-carotene (PubChem CID: 5280489); Beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide (PubChem CID: 5281231); Carotenoids; Fruit fraction; Goldenberry; HPLC-MS; Helenien (PubChem CID: 5281240); Identification; Lutein (PubChem CID: 5281243); Lutein 3′-O-palmitate (PubChem CID: 87439880); Lutein 5,6-epoxide (PubChem CID: 5281244); Lutein dimyristate (PubChem CID: 11263184); Physalis peruviana L.; Ripening state; Xanthophyll esters; β-Carotene.

MeSH terms

  • Carotenoids / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Flowers / chemistry
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Fruit / growth & development*
  • Lutein / chemistry
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Physalis / chemistry*
  • Physalis / growth & development
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • beta Carotene / chemistry


  • Plant Extracts
  • beta Carotene
  • Carotenoids
  • Lutein