The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) after intrauterine insemination (IUI). A systematic review was conducted using three different approaches: a search of IUI registries; a search of published meta-analyses; and a search of prospective randomized trials. Search terms were 'IUI', 'complications', 'infection' and 'PID'. Two IUI registers were identified that met the inclusion criteria, totalling 365,874 cycles, with 57 PID cases being reported. The post-IUI PID rate was 0.16/1000 (95% CI 0.2 to 0.3/1000). The frequency was higher in husband sperm cycles (0.21/1000) (28/135,839) than in donor sperm cycles (0.03/1000) (1/33,712) (P < 0.05; OR 6.95). Nineteen meta-analyses were retrieved, which included 156 trials, totalling 43,048 cycles, with no PID case being reported. Seventeen prospective clinical trials published between 2013 and 2014 were identified, totalling 4968 cycles; no PID case was reported. The reported rate of post-IUI clinical PID is low (0.16/1000), about 40% higher than reported in the general population of women during their reproductive life. No antibiotic prophylaxis should be recommended unless there is an associated risk factor.
Keywords: Complications; Infection; Intrauterine insemination; Pelvic inflammatory disease.
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