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, 42 (8), 2421-2427

Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE)


Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE)

S-Ali Khodaie et al. World J Surg.


Background: Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery.

Methods: This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah.

Results and discussion: Safavid kings (1501-1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.

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