During S phase, replicated DNA must be assembled into nucleosomes using both newly synthesized and parental histones in a process that is tightly coupled to DNA replication. This DNA replication-coupled process is regulated by multitude of histone chaperones as well as by histone-modifying enzymes. In recent years novel insights into nucleosome assembly of new H3-H4 tetramers have been gained through studies on the classical histone chaperone CAF-1 and the identification of novel factors involved in this process. Moreover, in vitro reconstitution of chromatin replication has shed light on nucleosome assembly of parental H3-H4, a process that remains elusive. Finally, recent studies have revealed that the replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is important for the determination and maintenance of cell fate in multicellular organisms.
Keywords: DNA replication; cell fate maintenance; epigenetic inheritance; histone modifications; nucleosome assembly.
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