Efficacy and Safety of Fosmidomycin-Piperaquine as Nonartemisinin-Based Combination Therapy for Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria: A Single-Arm, Age De-escalation Proof-of-Concept Study in Gabon

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 1;66(12):1823-1830. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1122.


Background: Fosmidomycin-piperaquine is being developed as nonartemisinin-based combination therapy to meet the challenge of emerging artemisinin resistance.

Methods: The study was a phase 2, single-arm, proof-of-concept study of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of fosmidomycin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection in Gabon. Adults and children of both sexes with initial parasite counts between 1000 and 150000/µL received oral treatment with fosmidomycin (twice daily doses of 30 mg/kg) and piperaquine (once daily dose of 16 mg/kg) for 3 days and followed-up for 63 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the per-protocol polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-corrected day 28 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR).

Results: One hundred patients were enrolled. The PCR-corrected day 28 ACPR rate was 83/83, or 100% (95% confidence interval, 96-100). Fourteen patients had asexual parasitaemia between day 28 and day 63; all were typed by PCR as new infections. Fosmidomycin-piperaquine therapy led to rapid parasite clearance (median, 36 hours; interquartile range [IQR], 6-60) and fever clearance time (median, 12 hours; IQR, 6-48). The electrocardiogram assessments showed 2 patients with prolonged QT interval >500 msec following study drug administration. The majority of adverse events affected the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and were transient and mild to moderate in severity.

Conclusions: This is the first report of the use of the combination fosmidomycin-piperaquine. The combination appeared to have high efficacy and be safe and well tolerated despite observed transient changes in electrocardiogram with prolongation of the QT interval. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02198807.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Artemisinins
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Fosfomycin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Fosfomycin / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malaria, Falciparum / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Plasmodium falciparum / drug effects
  • Plasmodium falciparum / genetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Proof of Concept Study
  • Quinolines / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Antimalarials
  • Artemisinins
  • Quinolines
  • Fosfomycin
  • fosmidomycin
  • artemisinin
  • piperaquine

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02198807