Background: Standard therapy for chordoma consists of surgical resection followed by high-dose irradiation. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase involved in signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell differentiation, and DNA repair. LB100 is a small-molecule inhibitor of PP2A designed to sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage from irradiation and chemotherapy. A recently completed phase I trial of LB100 in solid tumors demonstrated its safety. Here, we show the therapeutic potential of LB100 in chordoma.
Methods: Three patient-derived chordoma cell lines were used: U-CH1, JHC7, and UM-Chor1. Cell proliferation was determined with LB100 alone and in combination with irradiation. Cell cycle progression was assessed by flow cytometry. Quantitative γ-H2AX immunofluorescence and immunoblot evaluated the effect of LB100 on radiation-induced DNA damage. Ultrastructural evidence for nuclear damage was investigated using Raman imaging and transmission electron microscopy. A xenograft model was established to determine potential clinical utility of adding LB100 to irradiation.
Results: PP2A inhibition in concert with irradiation demonstrated in vitro growth inhibition. The combination of LB100 and radiation also induced accumulation at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, the stage most sensitive to radiation-induced damage. LB100 enhanced radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Animals implanted with chordoma cells and treated with the combination of LB100 and radiation demonstrated tumor growth delay.
Conclusions: Combining LB100 and radiation enhanced DNA damage-induced cell death and delayed tumor growth in an animal model of chordoma. PP2A inhibition by LB100 treatment may improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy for chordoma.