Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 15 (1)

Contact to Nature Benefits Health: Mixed Effectiveness of Different Mechanisms

Affiliations

Contact to Nature Benefits Health: Mixed Effectiveness of Different Mechanisms

Mathias Hofmann et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Abstract

How can urban nature contribute to the reduction of chronic stress? We twice measured the concentration of the "stress hormone" cortisol in the hair of 85 volunteer gardeners (six months apart), relating cortisol level change to (self-reported) characteristics of their recreational activities. Both time spent in nature and physical activity led to decreases in cortisol, while time spent being idle led to an increase. At high levels of present stressors, however, the relationship for time spent in nature and for idleness was reversed. Time spent with social interaction had no effect on cortisol levels. Our results indicate that physical activity is an effective means of mitigating the negative effects of chronic stress. The results regarding the time spent in nature and time spent being idle are less conclusive, suggesting the need for more research. We conclude that if chronic stress cannot be abolished by eradicating its sources, public health may take to measures to reduce it-providing urban nature being one effective possibility.

Keywords: chronic stress; gardening; hair cortisol; recreation; urban nature.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Interaction plots for the combined effects of stressor levels and characteristics of recreational activities during summer on the change in hair cortisol concentration (HCC, in pg/mg; differences between spring and fall measurements; higher values denote a more positive state, i.e., they correspond to a higher reduction of HCC). Only the interaction effects between time spent in nature and stressor level (upper panel) and between idleness and stressor level (lower panel) were statistically significant (see Table 4).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 4 PubMed Central articles

References

    1. World Health Organization . Constitution. World Health Organization; Genève, Switzerland: 1948. Basic Documents.
    1. Selye H. Stress and disease. Laryngoscope. 1955;65:500–514. doi: 10.1288/00005537-195507000-00002. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Toates F.M. Biological Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Pearson Education; Harlow, UK: 2001.
    1. Staufenbiel S.M., Penninx B.W.J.H., Spijker A.T., Elzinga B.M., van Rossum E.F.C. Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: A systematic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1220–1235. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.11.015. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Korte S.M., Koolhaas J.M., Wingfield J.C., McEwen B.S. The Darwinian concept of stress: Benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2005;29:3–38. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.08.009. - DOI - PubMed

Publication types

Feedback