Central and Brachial Blood Pressures, Statins, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Mediation Analysis

Hypertension. 2018 Mar;71(3):415-421. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10476. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Abstract

Central blood pressure may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than brachial pressure. Although statins reduce brachial pressure, their impact on central pressure remains unknown. Furthermore, whether this effect is mediated through a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) is unknown. This study aims to characterize the association of statins and LDL-c with central and brachial blood pressures and to quantify their respective effects. Of the 20 004 CARTaGENE participants, 16 507 had available central blood pressure, LDL-c, and Framingham risk score. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the association between central pressure and LDL-c in subjects with or without statins. The impact of LDL-c on the association between statin and pressure parameters was determined through mediation analyses. LDL-c was positively associated with systolic and diastolic central pressure in nonusers (β=0.077 and 0.106; P<0.001) and in participants with statins for primary (β=0.086 and 0.114; P<0.001) and secondary prevention (β=0.120 and 0.194; P<0.003). Statins as primary prevention were associated with lower central systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures (-3.0, -1.6, and -1.3 mm Hg; P<0.001). Mediation analyses showed that LDL-c reduction contributed to 15% of central systolic and 44% of central diastolic pressure changes associated with statins and attenuated 22% of the effects on central pulse pressure. Similar results were found with brachial pressure components. In conclusion, reduction of LDL-c was associated with only a fraction of the lower blood pressures in statin user and seemed to be mostly associated with improvement of steady (diastolic) pressure, whereas non-LDL-c-mediated pathways were mostly associated with changes in pulsatile pressure components.

Keywords: blood pressure; cardiovascular disease; cholesterol, LDL; secondary prevention.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Ankle Brachial Index
  • Blood Pressure Determination / methods*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cholesterol, LDL / analysis*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Hypertension / blood
  • Hypertension / diagnosis*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Primary Prevention / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Quebec
  • Risk Assessment
  • Secondary Prevention / methods
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors