In 1986, an outbreak of Moraxella follicular conjunctivitis occurred in girls attending a Navajo boarding school in New Mexico. We diagnosed 19 cases of culture-proven, and 21 of clinical conjunctivitis based on isolation of Moraxella from conjunctival cultures and the occurrence of symptoms significantly associated with positive culture. Sharing eye makeup was significantly associated with Moraxella-positive conjunctivitis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.2, P = .004) and showed a trend toward significance in those with clinical conjunctivitis (OR = 2.9, P = .09). Eyeliner and eye shadow were implicated (OR = 4.1, P less than .05). We cultured samples of 13 students' makeup; one third of the eyeliners were positive for Moraxella. Nasal carriage of Moraxella was found in 35 (44%) of the 79 female boarders and in 20 (21%) of 97 Navajo patients at two nearby clinics. In a prospective evaluation of the effect of patient education and rifampin therapy on the occurrence of conjunctivitis during an 11-month follow-up period, both types of intervention were successful in significantly reducing the rate of conjunctivitis when compared with that in a control group.