Outpatient treatment of 'crack' cocaine smoking with flupenthixol decanoate. A preliminary report

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989 Apr;46(4):322-5. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810040028005.


"Crack" cocaine abuse often produces severe cocaine dependence that is refractory to available pharmacological and outpatient psychotherapeutic treatments. We conducted two preliminary investigations evaluating the efficacy of flupenthixol decanoate, a depot xanthene requiring infrequent intramuscular administration, in the treatment of cocaine withdrawal. Ten outpatient crack cocaine smokers with poor prognoses were administered flupenthixol decanoate in an open-label, open-ended trial. Flupenthixol decanoate was well tolerated and appeared to decrease cocaine craving and use markedly and rapidly, producing a 260% increase in the average time retained in treatment among these subjects. These promising but preliminary data, combined with the magnitude of problems presented by crack, warrant rapid, expanded double-blind assessment of flupenthixol decanoate in cocaine-abuse treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Care*
  • Cocaine*
  • Female
  • Flupenthixol / analogs & derivatives
  • Flupenthixol / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Substance-Related Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Thioxanthenes / therapeutic use*


  • Thioxanthenes
  • flupenthixol decanoate
  • Flupenthixol
  • Cocaine