Impact of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative on family planning uptake at facilities in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal

BMC Womens Health. 2018 Jan 5;18(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12905-017-0504-x.


Background: The 2012 London Summit on Family Planning set ambitious goals to enable 120 million more women and adolescent girls to use modern contraceptives by 2020. The Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI) was a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded program designed to help contribute to these goals in urban areas in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. URHI implemented a range of country-specific demand and supply side interventions, with supply interventions generally focused on improved service quality, provider training, outreach to patients, and commodity stock management. This study uses data collected by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Project to examine the effectiveness of these supply-side interventions by considering URHI's influence on the number of family planning clients at health facilities over a four-year period in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal.

Methods: The analysis used facility audits and provider surveys. Principal-components analysis was used to create country-specific program exposure variables for health facilities. Fixed-effects regression was used to determine whether family planning uptake increased at facilities with higher exposure. Outcomes of interest were the number of new family planning acceptors and the total number of family planning clients per reproductive health care provider in the last year.

Results: Higher program component scores were associated with an increase in new family planning acceptors per provider in Kenya (β = 18, 95% CI = 7-29), Nigeria (β = 14, 95% CI = 8-20), and Senegal (β = 7, 95% CI = 3-12). Higher scores were also associated with more family planning clients per provider in Kenya (β = 31, 95% CI = 7-56) and Nigeria (β = 26, 95% CI = 15-38), but not in Senegal.

Conclusions: Supply-side interventions have increased the number of new family planning acceptors at facilities in urban Nigeria, Kenya, and Senegal and the overall number of clients in urban Nigeria and Kenya. While tailoring to the local environment, programs seeking to increase family planning use should include components to improve availability and quality of family planning services, which are part of a rights-based approach to family planning programming.

Keywords: Facility improvements; Family planning; Kenya; Nigeria; Senegal; Urban.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Contraception Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • Family Planning Services / organization & administration*
  • Family Planning Services / standards
  • Family Planning Services / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Health Personnel / statistics & numerical data
  • Health Promotion*
  • Humans
  • Kenya
  • Nigeria
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Program Evaluation
  • Quality Improvement
  • Reproductive Health*
  • Senegal
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*