Effect of Multi-Microbial Probiotic Formulation Bokashi on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Profile in the Serum, Colostrum and Milk of Sows, and in a Culture of Polymorphonuclear Cells Isolated from Colostrum

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019 Mar;11(1):220-232. doi: 10.1007/s12602-017-9380-9.


The use of probiotics in sows during pregnancy and lactation and their impact on the quality of colostrum and milk, as well as the health conditions of their offspring during the rearing period, are currently gaining the attention of researchers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Bokashi formulation on the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of sows during pregnancy, in their colostrum and milk, and in a culture of Con-A-stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from the colostrum. The study was conducted on 60 sows aged 2-4 years. EM Bokashi were added to the sows' feed. The material for the study consisted of peripheral blood, colostrum, and milk. Blood samples were collected from the sows on days 60 and 114 of gestation. Colostrum and milk samples were collected from all sows at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after parturition. The results indicate that the use of Bokashi as feed additives resulted in increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which increase the protective capacity of the colostrum by stimulating cellular immune mechanisms protecting the sow and neonates against infection. At the same time, the increased concentrations of cytokines IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β, and of immunoglobulins in the colostrum and milk from sows in the experimental group demonstrate the immunoregulatory effect of Bokashi on Th2 cells and may lead to increased expression of regulatory T cells and polarization of the immune response from Th1 to Th2.

Keywords: Colostrums and milk; ConA stimulation of PMC; Effective microorganisms; Immunoglobulin and cytokine concentration; Pigs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Colostrum / cytology
  • Colostrum / immunology*
  • Cytokines / analysis*
  • Female
  • Milk / immunology*
  • Neutrophils / immunology*
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage*
  • Swine
  • Th2 Cells / immunology


  • Cytokines